Maps and Diagram

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The Ringed Instrument Zt'l-Krs (The horizon-oriented coordinate system known as "The Ringed Instrument"): This instrument, whose origins go back to the Hellentistic period, was called by the Ottomans "zat-l halak," which means "ringed instrument." In the West it was called a "meteoroscope", "armilar sfer"(ringed sphere) or "astrolabium armilare" (ringed astrolabe). The instrument is drawn with the supposition that it is located at the center of the earth. The instrument fixed with a handle drawn by Ahmed el-Kirim was called Zat'l-Krs (instrument with pedestal). This drawing of the sky was added by Mteferrika to Displaying the World and in modern times became well-known in the East and West. This is the coordinate system tied to the elliptical circle, generally consisting of 6 rings, and shows the constellations and tropics. The world is at the exact center.

Celestial SphereCelestial Sphere: An image showing the universe as scholars imagined it to consist of “spheres” arranged one inside the other with the level of the fixed stars outermost. The circle at the right side of the drawing relates to the fixed stars of the southern hemisphere, and the one on the left to those of the northern hemisphere. The positions and names of the 12 signs of the Zodiac are indicated at the circumference of each circle..

Circles showing the names of the directions and the windsCircles showing the names of the directions and the winds in various languages: (drawn by Galatalı Mıgırdıç). Images of five different circles. In the first circle are the Tropics of Capricorn and Cancer, the equator, and the four cardinal and 4 ordinal directions: East, Northeast, Southeast, West, Northwest, Southwest, South, and North. The second circle shows the same points with their Greek names.

The globeKüre-i arz ve mâ’(The globe): This comprises two spheres. The first contains Asia, Europe, Africa and their environs, making up the Old World. The second hemisphere contains “West India,” America, that is to say the newly discovered world. The image was drawn by Ahmed al-Kırımî. It has lines of latitude and longitude, clime zones, the poles, the equator, and the names of continents and some countries and regions are indicated. The as yet undiscovered northern regions of the continent of America, which is named “The New World,” are left blank. Florida is depicted as an island. The continent of Australia in the southern hemisphere is indicated as “The Continent of New Holland.”

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